Hormones cause cellular changes by binding to receptors on target cells. The number of receptors on a target cell can increase or decrease in response to hormone activity. Hormones can affect cells directly through intracellular hormone receptors or indirectly through plasma membrane hormone receptors.
What is one change that can occur in a cell that has a hormone receptor interaction?
More specifically, when a receptor becomes bound to a hormone, it undergoes a conformational change which allows it to interact productively with other components of the cells, leading ultimately to an alteration in the physiologic state of the cell.
Can cells differ in their response to a hormone if they have the same receptor for that hormone explain?
In addition, cell surface receptors cause proteins in the cytoplasm to move into the nucleus and alter transcription of certain genes. … The different effects brought about by a particular hormone can vary if target cells differ in the molecules that receive or produce the response to that hormone. Example: Epinephrine.
How can a target cell’s response to a single hormone?
How can a target cell’s response to a single hormone molecule result in a response that affects a million other molecules? … This causes the response to be amplified at each step and results in a large amplification of the original signal. Some human diseases are associated with malfunctioning protein phosphatases.
Why do different cell types respond differently to the same hormone?
The specific way in which a cell reacts to its environment varies. … In many cases, the same signal molecule binds to identical receptor proteins yet produces very different responses in different types of target cells, reflecting differences in the internal machinery to which the receptors are coupled (Figure 15-9).
What are the three types of interactive effects hormones can have?
The three most common types of interaction are as follows:
- The permissive effect, in which the presence of one hormone enables another hormone to act. …
- The synergistic effect, in which two hormones with similar effects produce an amplified response. …
- The antagonistic effect, in which two hormones have opposing effects.
How can the same hormone have different effects?
The same hormone can be made by different glands. For instance, both the ovaries and the adrenal gland release estrogens. A hormone can have different effects depending on the target cell’s location, the gender of the individual and the species. … Hormones influence gene expression by binding DNA in a cell’s nucleus.
What do all hormones have in common?
The correct answer: The character that all hormones have in common is (c) They bind to and interact with a receptor in the target cell.
How do steroid hormones influence cellular activities?
The steroid hormone then passes through the plasma membrane of a target cell and sticks to intracellular receptors which are present in the nucleus or the cytoplasm. The cell signaling pathways induced by the steroid hormones help to regulate the specific genes on the cell’s DNA.
Why do some hormones need to trigger a second messenger?
Binding of hormone to receptor initiates a series of events which leads to generation of so-called second messengers within the cell (the hormone is the first messenger). The second messengers then trigger a series of molecular interactions that alter the physiologic state of the cell.
What hormone has the most target cells?
Almost all body cells are targets of thyroid hormones. Thyroid hormone increases the overall metabolic rate, regulates growth and development as well as the onset of sexual maturity.
What must be present for any type of hormone to be able to act on a target cell?
What must be present for any type of hormone to be able to act on a target cell? Target cells have specific receptors for the hormone. … are released from one cell and affect change in a neighboring cell.
How do local hormone secretions function differently?
hormones diffuse into blood stream and act on target cells. how do paracrine and autocrine secretions function differently than traditionally defined hormones? they r known as local hormones bc they secrete substances into intestinal fluid, secretions r rapidly broken down and do not reach blood steam.
What are the 4 ways cells communicate?
There are four basic categories of chemical signaling found in multicellular organisms: paracrine signaling, autocrine signaling, endocrine signaling, and signaling by direct contact.
Why do the two cells respond differently?
In many cases the same signaling molecule binds to identical receptor proteins and yet produces very different responses in different types of target cells, reflecting differences in the internal machinery to which the receptors are coupled (Figure 15-9).
What happens when cell signaling goes wrong?
This constant communication is so fundamental to the body’s health and development that when cellular signals go awry, the interference may cause a number of conditions or diseases, such as diabetes—or cancer. … Some drugs, for instance, are designed to block the signals cancer cells send to evade the immune system.