The specific way in which a cell reacts to its environment varies. … In many cases, the same signal molecule binds to identical receptor proteins yet produces very different responses in different types of target cells, reflecting differences in the internal machinery to which the receptors are coupled (Figure 15-9).
Can different cells respond to the same hormone?
Cells can have many receptors for the same hormone but often also possess receptors for different types of hormones. The number of receptors that respond to a hormone determines the cell’s sensitivity to that hormone, and the resulting cellular response.
Why do cells respond to many different signals?
Reversible bonding of signal molecules allows cells to become inactive and the receptor to become open again, allowing the cell to be able to respond to another signal.
Can cells differ in their response to a hormone if they have the same receptor for that hormone explain?
In addition, cell surface receptors cause proteins in the cytoplasm to move into the nucleus and alter transcription of certain genes. … The different effects brought about by a particular hormone can vary if target cells differ in the molecules that receive or produce the response to that hormone. Example: Epinephrine.
How the same signal may elicit different responses in different cells?
The same ligand can cause different responses in different cell types due to differences in protein expression in the different cells, where the same signal activates different signaling pathways, leading to a different response in each cell type.
What are the 4 ways cells communicate?
There are four basic categories of chemical signaling found in multicellular organisms: paracrine signaling, autocrine signaling, endocrine signaling, and signaling by direct contact.
What do all hormones have in common?
The correct answer: The character that all hormones have in common is (c) They bind to and interact with a receptor in the target cell.
What are the 5 types of cell signaling?
The major types of signaling mechanisms that occur in multicellular organisms are paracrine, endocrine, autocrine, and direct signaling.
What are the three stages of cell signaling?
The three stages of cell communication (reception, transduction, and response) and how changes couls alter cellular responses. How a receptor protein recognizes signal molecules and starts transduction.
What are the 3 types of cell communication?
There are three different types of basic cell communication: surface membrane to surface membrane; exterior, which is between receptors on the cell; and direct communication, which means signals pass inside the cell itself.
What are the three types of interactive effects hormones can have?
The three most common types of interaction are as follows:
- The permissive effect, in which the presence of one hormone enables another hormone to act. …
- The synergistic effect, in which two hormones with similar effects produce an amplified response. …
- The antagonistic effect, in which two hormones have opposing effects.
Why do some hormones need to trigger a second messenger to activate a target cell?
Binding of hormone to receptor initiates a series of events which leads to generation of so-called second messengers within the cell (the hormone is the first messenger). The second messengers then trigger a series of molecular interactions that alter the physiologic state of the cell.
How do hormones affect gene expression?
Estrogen hormones regulate gene expression. They achieve this by first binding to estrogen receptor in the cell nucleus, which triggers the recruitment of different molecules called coactivators in specific order.
How does a signal activate intracellular changes?
Once a receptor protein receives a signal, it undergoes a conformational change, which in turn launches a series of biochemical reactions within the cell. … Activation of receptors can trigger the synthesis of small molecules called second messengers, which initiate and coordinate intracellular signaling pathways.
What are the general principles of cell communication?
Cellular communication is a stepwise process that involves the generation of an extrinsic signal, detection of the signal by a receptor, transduction of the signal by intracellular signalling molecules and a cellular response. When the extrinsic signal is removed, cellular communication processes cease.
How is signal amplification most often achieved?
Most cell surface receptors stimulate intracellular target enzymes, which may be either directly linked or indirectly coupled to receptors by G proteins. These intracellular enzymes serve as downstream signaling elements that propagate and amplify the signal initiated by ligand binding.