Why are some body cells responsive to a particular hormone, whereas others are not? Responsive cells express a specific receptor for the hormone. Responsive cells are located closer to the gland that releases the hormone.
What makes cells responsive to a particular hormone?
Most hormones circulate in blood, coming into contact with essentially all cells. However, a given hormone usually affects only a limited number of cells, which are called target cells. A target cell responds to a hormone because it bears receptors for the hormone.
What are two mechanisms how target cells recognize hormones?
There are two major mechanisms, second-messenger mechanisms and direct gene activation, by which the hormone activates the target cell. Direct Gene Activation. Steroid hormones pass through plasma membrane (they’re lipid soluble) and attach to receptor molecules that are inside the cell.
Can cells differ in their response to a hormone if they have the same receptor for that hormone explain?
In addition, cell surface receptors cause proteins in the cytoplasm to move into the nucleus and alter transcription of certain genes. … The different effects brought about by a particular hormone can vary if target cells differ in the molecules that receive or produce the response to that hormone. Example: Epinephrine.
How do hormones have different effects on different cells?
A hormone can have different effects depending on the target cell’s location, the gender of the individual and the species. … That is, hormones turn on certain genes that are preprogrammed to make specific proteins. These proteins cause a cell to respond in a new way (grow, secrete, metabolize, etc.).
Which hormone has a Calorigenic effect?
Thyroid hormone has a calorigenic effect.
How can a target cell’s response to a single hormone?
How can a target cell’s response to a single hormone molecule result in a response that affects a million other molecules? … This causes the response to be amplified at each step and results in a large amplification of the original signal. Some human diseases are associated with malfunctioning protein phosphatases.
What are the two major types of hormones?
There are two major classes of hormones 1. Proteins, Peptides, and modified amino acids 2. Steroids. In general, steroids are sex hormones related to sexual maturation and fertility.
What is an example of down regulation?
An example of downregulation is the cellular decrease in the number of receptors to a molecule, such as a hormone or neurotransmitter, which reduces the cell’s sensitivity to the molecule. This phenomenon is an example of a locally acting negative feedback mechanism.
Why do some hormones need to trigger a second messenger to activate a target cell?
Binding of hormone to receptor initiates a series of events which leads to generation of so-called second messengers within the cell (the hormone is the first messenger). The second messengers then trigger a series of molecular interactions that alter the physiologic state of the cell.
What do all hormones have in common?
The correct answer: The character that all hormones have in common is (c) They bind to and interact with a receptor in the target cell.
What are the three types of interactive effects hormones can have?
The three most common types of interaction are as follows:
- The permissive effect, in which the presence of one hormone enables another hormone to act. …
- The synergistic effect, in which two hormones with similar effects produce an amplified response. …
- The antagonistic effect, in which two hormones have opposing effects.
What types of receptors do hormones use?
List of hormone receptors
- Androgen receptors.
- Calcitriol receptors.
- Corticotropin-releasing hormone receptor 1.
- Corticotropin releasing hormone receptor 2.
- Estrogen receptors.
- Follicle-stimulating hormone receptors.
- Glucagon receptors.
- Gonadotropin receptors.
What are the two locations where hormones find their receptors?
Receptors for peptide hormones tend to be found on the plasma membrane of cells, whereas receptors for lipid-soluble hormones are usually found within the cytoplasm.
How do hormones affect gene expression?
Estrogen hormones regulate gene expression. They achieve this by first binding to estrogen receptor in the cell nucleus, which triggers the recruitment of different molecules called coactivators in specific order.
Can hormones affect gene activity how?
Hormones exert powerful effects on reproductive physiology by regulating gene expression. Recent discoveries in hormone action emphasize that regulation of gene expression is not restricted to their alterations of the rate of gene transcription.