Glucagon is a peptide hormone secreted from the alpha cells of the pancreatic islets of Langerhans. Hypoglycemia is physiologically the most potent secretory stimulus and the best known action of glucagon is to stimulate glucose production in the liver and thereby to maintain adequate plasma glucose concentrations.
Which of the following hormone stimulates the breakdown of glucose in the liver into glucose?
Glucagon’s role in the body is to prevent blood glucose levels dropping too low. To do this, it acts on the liver in several ways: It stimulates the conversion of stored glycogen (stored in the liver) to glucose, which can be released into the bloodstream. This process is called glycogenolysis.
What hormone releases glucose from the liver?
The liver both stores and manufactures glucose depending upon the body’s need. The need to store or release glucose is primarily signaled by the hormones insulin and glucagon. During a meal, your liver will store sugar, or glucose, as glycogen for a later time when your body needs it.
Which of the following hormones stimulates the breakdown of glycogen into glucose in the liver a glucagon B thyroxine C prolactin D follicle stimulating hormone?
Insulin lowers blood glucose levels by enhancing the rate of glucose uptake and utilization by target cells, which use glucose for ATP production. It also stimulates the liver to convert glucose to glycogen, which is then stored by cells for later use.
Which of the following hormones stimulates breakdown of glycogen and increase blood glucose concentration?
Epinephrine or Adrenaline:- It is secreted by adrenal medulla and performs two functions: It stimulates glycogenolysis in the liver and muscle by stimulating the phosphorylase activity. In muscle, glycogenolysis occurs with formation of lactate.
Which hormone stimulates glycogenolysis in liver?
Glucagon promotes glycogenolysis in liver cells, its primary target with respect to raising circulating glucose levels. This effect appears to be mediated through stimulation of adenylyl cyclase and production of intracellular cAMP and activation of phosphorylase-a.
What is the normal level of glucose in the blood?
A blood sugar level less than 140 mg/dL (7.8 mmol/L) is normal. A reading of more than 200 mg/dL (11.1 mmol/L) after two hours indicates diabetes. A reading between 140 and 199 mg/dL (7.8 mmol/L and 11.0 mmol/L) indicates prediabetes.
What hormone controls the concentration of glucose in the blood?
The concentration of glucose in the blood is determined by the balance between the rate of glucose entering and the rate of glucose leaving the circulation. These signals are delivered throughout the body by two pancreatic hormones, insulin and glucagon (Maitra, 2009).
What organ removes sugar from the blood?
Glycogen is mainly stored in the liver (where it makes up as much as 10% of liver weight and can be released back into the blood stream) and muscle (where it can be converted back to glucose but only used by the muscle). Therefore, excess glucose is removed from the blood stream and stored.
What does the liver do to glucose?
Excess glucose is used to synthesize fatty acids in the liver. In addition to glucose utilization, human liver releases glucose to the systemic circulation, either from previously stored glycogen (glycogenolysis) or by generating glucose from precursors such as alanine, lactate and glycerol (gluconeogenesis).
What is Glycogenolysis stimulated by?
Glycogenolysis occurs primarily in the liver and is stimulated by the hormones glucagon and epinephrine (adrenaline).
Which gland is also called the master gland?
The pituitary gland is sometimes called the “master” gland of the endocrine system because it controls the functions of many of the other endocrine glands.
What gland is located just superior to the kidneys?
An adrenal gland is located on top of each kidney. Like many glands, the adrenal glands work hand-in-hand with the hypothalamus and pituitary gland.
Which of the following hormones stimulates Glycogenesis?
Pancreatic insulin: Insulin is the main regulatory hormone produced and secreted by the pancreatic beta cells. It stimulates the uptake of glucose and the movement of glucose from blood to cells for energy production. Insulin also stimulates glycogenesis, inhibits glycogenolysis, and regulates protein synthesis.
Which part of the body controls hormones?
The pituitary gland is a small pea-sized gland that plays a major role in regulating vital body functions and general wellbeing. It is referred to as the body’s ‘master gland’ because it controls the activity of most other hormone-secreting glands.
Which of the following stimulates Glycogenesis?
Glycogenesis is stimulated by the hormone insulin. Insulin facilitates the uptake of glucose into muscle cells, though it is not required for the transport of glucose into liver cells.